[sgmb id=”1″]Today we will discuss about an era which plays an vital role in every government exams that is , we have tried to pick some important points that will surely help you in understanding Indus Valley Civilization in a shortcut way.
Let’s Discuss about Harrapan/ Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC – 1750 BC)
- Indus Valley Civilization is the oldest civilization. While Harappa is the first discovered site as this can be said by archeological traditions
- Other name can be Indus Saraswati Valley from the geographical point of view as more than 80% of the settlement was near Saraswati.
- By carbon dating (a method used to predict the age of archeological evidences) it has been found that this valley sustained in between 2500 BC – 1750 BC
- The term Indus Valley was first used by a scholar John Marshall
- Indus Valley belongs to Bronze Age or Chalcolithic Age
- ROPAR (Punjab), Manda (Jammu & Kashmir) were considered as the northern most site of Indus Valley Civilization whereas Bhagatrav (Gujarat), Daimabad now in Maharashtra are considered as Southern most part.
- Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh) is the eastern most Indus civilization and Sutkagendor belongs to the western site of Indus Valley civilization
Scholars consider Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro as the capital cities of the Indus valley Civilizations having port cities Ex: Lothal, Sutkagendor, Allahdino, Balakot, Kuntasi etc.
N.B: Excavator of Harappa was Daya Ram Sahni and Excavator of Mohenjodaro was Rakhal Das Banerjee.
Most Important Sites and their features
||Their Important features
||6 Grenaries in a row, Dice, Cemetery R 37, H) Virgin Goddesses (seal), and lingam, yoni are associated with it.
||Great bath(largest building of Indus valley civilization) , Assembly Hall , Shiva seal , Demi God ,
||City without Citadel , Bullocks cart model of terracotta , Bronze Toy cart
||Dockyard , Double Burial ( male female are buried in same grave) Painted jar
||Ploughed Fields and Toy cart
||Lack of Systematic Drainage System
||A stadium , only site divided in to 3 parts
||Only site with bones of horses , oval Burial and Pot burials
||Bronze images of ox, elephant and Rhino.
Note: Though Mohenjodaro was the largest Indus Valley Civilization but Rakhigiri was the largest Indian site of Indus valley civilization.
What are the main crops of Indus Valley?
Wheat and barley were the main crops though evidences of Rice cultivation in LOTHAL in Gujarat and Rangpur have also been found , COTTON was first produced by the people of Indus valley civilization
Some Animals of Indus valley
Goat, Sheep, Hump less Bull, Tiger, Rhino, Cat, Pig, deer were known, nut LION was not known to Indus people
Note: IRON was also not know to these peoples
For trade Barter System was used, i.e. exchange of goods as there were no evidences of coins.
One may consider INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION AS primarily Urban; because of their drainage systems, burnt bricks were used also it was runned by class of merchants.
Harrapan people do not believe in worshipping GOD as no temples were found , Instead they worship figurines’ of Mother Goddesses Shakti .The chief male worshipped figurine was pashupati Mahadeva and animals that sorrounds Mahadeva are ( buffalo, rhino, elephant and tiger). These people also worship various sacred animals and trees like peepal.
For making seals these people uses steatite
At last it has been found that disposal of dead bodies by complete burial was the practices adopted by Indus peoples.
So it was all about the Indus Valley Civilization People, if we missed some important points don’t hesitate to ping back we will update it.